Amalgam silver Fillings & Mercury Detoxification References

Dedicated to Educating the Public about the Health Hazards
of Amalgam Filling, Chronic Mercury Poisoning, Mercury
Detoxification and the Relationship of Oral to Overall Health!

Mercury Detoxification & Chronic Mercury Poisoning: References


We have provided a list of references for anyone wishing to access the material we have used to support our position against mercury amalgam fillings, chronic mercury poisoning, and the importance and value of Mercury Detoxification. Each of our books will have its own reference section that directly relates to material in that particular book. The references on the website are in addition to those found in the books. To make it easier for you to search the references we have broken them down into specific groups and listed the title of the article first. Click on a link to access the references

Antioxidants for Mercury Removal: General

Antioxidants for Mercury Removal: Specific

Chelation for Mercury Removal

Mercury Related Diseases and Symptoms: Neurological

Systems Related to Chronic Mercury Poisoning

Antioxidants for Mercury Removal: General

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in different organs of mice exposed to low level of mercury. Mahboob M, et al. J Environ Sci Health B. 2001 Sep; 36(5):687-97. 

Antioxidants for Mercury Removal: Specific                                                                              

Alpha Lipoic Acid

Lipoic acid increases glutathione production and enhances the effect of mercury in human cell lines. Hultberg B, et al. Toxicology. 2002 Jun 14; 175(1-3):103-10. 


Activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Bulat P, et al. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998 Sep; 71 Suppl: S37-9.

Depletion of glutathione in the kidney and the renal disposition of administered inorganic mercury. Zalups RK, Lash LH. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Apr; 25(4):516-23.

Interactions between glutathione and mercury in the kidney, liver and blood. Zalups RK, et al. Toxicology of Metals. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1996:145-163.

Metallothionein and glutathione as determinants of cellular retention and extrusion of cadmium and mercury. Foulkes EC. Life Sci. 1993; 52(20):1617-20.

Methylmercury efflux from brain capillary endothelial cells is modulated by intracellular glutathione but not ATP. Kerper LE, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Dec; 141(2):526-31.

Methylmercury inhibits cysteine uptake in cultured primary astrocytes, but not in neurons. Shanker G, et al. Brain Res. 2001 Sep 28;914(1-2):159-65.

Role of extracellular glutathione and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase in the disposition and kidney toxicity of inorganic mercury in rats. de Ceaurriz J, et al. J Appl Toxicol. 1994 May-Jun; 14(3):201-6.

Role of extracellular thiols in accumulation and distribution of inorganic mercury in rat renal proximal and distal tubular cells. Lash LH, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jun; 285(3):1039-50.

The formation of constants of mercury (II)--glutathione complexes. Oram PD, et al. Chem Res Toxicol. 1996 Jun; 9(4):709-12.

Thiol and redox reactive agents exert different effects on glutathione metabolism in HeLa cell cultures. Hultberg B, et al. Clin Chim Acta. 1999 May; 283(1-2):21-32. 


Metallothionein induction in fetal rat brain and neonatal primary astrocyte cultures by in utero exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0). Aschner M, et al. Brain Res. 1997 Dec 5; 778(1):222-32.

Metallothionein in human gingival amalgam tattoos. Lau JC, et al. Arch Oral Biol. 2001 Nov; 46(11):1015-20.

Methylmercury alters glutamate transport in astrocytes. Aschner M, et al. Neurochem Int. 2000 Aug-Sep; 37(2-3):199-206.

Recent studies on metallothionein: protection against toxicity of heavy metals and oxygen free radicals. Sato M, et al. J Exp Med. 2002 Jan; 196(1):9-22.

Temporal changes in metallothionein gene transcription in rat kidney and liver: relationship to content of mercury and metallothionein protein. Zalups RK, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Oct; 295(1):74-82.

The effect of dietary zinc status on biliary metal excretion of rats. Jaw S, et al. J Nutr. 1988 Nov; 118(11):1385-90. 


Effect of different renal glutathione levels on renal mercury disposition and excretion in the rat. Girardi G, et al. Toxicology. 1993 Jul 11; 81(1):57-67.

N-acetylcysteine treatment. Livardjani F, et al. Toxicology. 1991 Mar 11; 66(3):289-95. 


Dental amalgam and selenium in blood. Hol PJ, et al. Environ Res. 2001 Dec;87(3):141-6. 11771928 PubMed.

Equimolar Hg-Se complex binds to selenoprotein P. Yoneda S, et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Feb 3; 231(1):7-11.

Landscapes of longevity: the calcium-selenium-mercury connection in cancer and heart disease. Foster HD. Med Hypotheses. 1997 Apr; 48(4):355-60.

Modification of mercury toxicity by selenium: practical importance? Watanabe C, et al Exp Med. 2002 Feb; 196(2):71-7.

Selenium concentrations in brain after exposure to methylmercury: relations between the inorganic mercury fraction and selenium. Bjorkman L, et al. Arch Toxicol. 1995; 69(4):228-34.

Serum selenium and glutathione-peroxidase activities and their interaction with toxic metals in dialysis and renal transplantation patients. Turan B, et al. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1992 Apr-Jun; 33:95-102.

Structural basis of the antagonism between inorganic mercury and selenium in mammals. Gailer J, et al. Chem Res Toxicol. 2000 Nov; 13(11):1135-42. 


Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning. Bernard S, et al. Med Hypotheses. 2001 Apr; 56(4):462-71.

The role of mercury in the pathogenesis of autism. Bernard S, Enayati A, Roger H, Binstock T, Redwood L. Mol Psychiatry. 2002; 7 Suppl 2:S42-3.

Thimerosal and autism? A plausible hypothesis that should not be dismissed. Blaxill MF, et al. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(5):788-94.


ADP-ribosylation of brain neuronal proteins is altered by in vitro and in vivo exposure to inorganic mercury. Palkiewicz P, et al. J Neurochem. 1994 May; 62(5):2049-52.

Acute and chronic neuropsychological consequences of mercury vapor poisoning in two early adolescents. Yeates KO, et al. Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1994 Apr; 16(2):209-22.

Apolipoprotein E genotyping as a potential biomarker for mercury neurotoxicity. Godfrey ME, et al. J Alzheimers Dis. 2003 Jun; 5(3):189-95. 

Chronic encephalopathies induced by mercury or lead: aspects of underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Rönnbäck L, et al. Br J Ind Med, 1992 Apr, 49:4, 233-40 Br J Ind Med. 1992 Apr; 49(4):233-40.

Effects of continuous low-dose exposure to organic and inorganic mercury during development on epileptogenicity in rats. Szasz A, et al. Neurotoxicology. 2002 Jul; 23(2):197-206.

Effects of methylmercury and inorganic mercury on the growth of nerve fibers in cultured chick dorsal root ganglia. Miura K, et al. Tohoku. J Exp Med. 2000 Nov; 192(3):195-210.

Evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in smoking. Siblerud RL, et al. J. Toxicol Lett 1993 Sep; 69(3):305. 

Interaction of mercury compounds with muscarinic receptor subtypes in the rat brain. Castoldi AF, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1996 Fall-Winter; 17(3-4):735-41.

Interactions of methylmercury with rat primary astrocyte cultures: inhibition of rubidium and glutamate uptake and induction of swelling. Aschner M, et al. Brain Res. 1990 Oct 22; 530(2):245-50. 

In vitro effect of organic and inorganic mercury on the serotonergic system. Oudar P, et al. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1989 Oct; 65(4):245-8.

Low concentrations of inorganic mercury inhibit in vitro autonomic transmission in the presence of albumin. Moberg LE, et al. Acta Odontol Scand. 1991 Dec; 49(6):351-9.

Mercury and proteins in cerebrospinal fluid in subjects exposed to mercury vapor. Sallsten G, et al. Environ Res. 1994 May; 65(2):195-206.

Mercury distribution in the neonatal and adult cerebellum after mercury vapor exposure of pregnant squirrel monkeys. Warfvinge K. Environ Res. 2000 Jun; 83(2):93-101.

Mercury (Hg 2+) enhances the depressant effect of kainate on Ca-inactivated potassium current in telencephalic cells derived from chick embryos. Dyatlov VA, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Jun; 138(2):285-97.

Mercury poisoning from dental amalgam through a direct nose-brain transport. Stortebecker P. Lancet. 1989 May 27; 1(8648):1207.

Modulation of protein kinase C by heavy metals. Rajanna B, et al. Toxicol Lett. 1995 Nov 15; 81(2-3):197-203.  

Motor neuron uptake of low dose inorganic mercury. Pamphlett R, et al. J Neurol Sci. 1996 Jan; 135(1):63-7.

Neurological and electrophysiological examinations on three groups of workers with different levels of exposure to mercury vapors. Urban P, et al. Eur J Neurol. 1999 Sep; 6(5):571-7.

Neurotoxic effect of exposure to low doses of mercury. Lucchini R, et al. Med Lav. 2002 May-Jun; 93(3):202-14.

Neurotoxicity of dental amalgam is mediated by zinc. Lobner D, et al. J Dent Res. 2003 Mar; 82(3):243-6.  

Relation between exposure related indices and neurological and neurophysiological effects in workers previously exposed to mercury vapour. Ellingsen DG, et al. Br J Ind Med. 1993 Aug; 50(8):736-44.

Repeated neurobehavioral investigations in workers exposed to mercury in a chloralkali plant. Gunther W, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1996 Fall-Winter; 17(3-4):605-14.

Residual neurobehavioural effects associated with chronic exposure to mercury vapour. Kishi R, et al. Occup Environ Med. 1994 Jan; 51(1):35-41.

Retrograde axonal transport of mercury. Arvidson B. Exp Neurol. 1987 Oct; 98(1):198-203.

Retrograde degeneration of neurite membrane structural integrity of nerve growth cones following in vitro exposure to mercury. Leong CC, et al. Neuroreport. 2001 Mar 26; 12(4):733-7.

Shrinkage of Motor Axons Following Systemic Exposure to Inorganic Mercury. Pamphlett R, et al. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1998 Apr; 57(4):360-6.

Subclinical effects of exposure to inorganic mercury revealed by somatosensory-evoked potentials. Lamm O, Pratt H. Eur Neurol. 1985; 24(4):237-43.

Subclinical neurotoxicity of mercury vapor revealed by a multimodality evoked potential study of chloralkali workers. Chang YC, et al. Am J Ind Med. 1995 Feb; 27(2):271-9. + ATPase after partial delipidisation with Lubrol. Magour S, et al. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1987 Mar; 60(3):184-6.

Toxicity of ionic mercury and elemental mercury vapor on brain neuronal protein metabolism. Lorscheider FL,et al. 12th International Neurotoxicology conference, Hot Springs, AR, October 31, 1994. Neurotoxicology 15, 955. 


Cancer mortality in Minamata disease patients exposed to methylmercury through fish diet. Kinjo Y, et al. J Epidemiol. 1996 Sep; 6(3):134-8.

Carcinogenicity of mercury and mercury compounds. Boffetta P, et al. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1993 Feb; 19(1):1-7.

Possible roles of nitric oxide and redox cell signaling in metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis: a review. Buzard GS, et al. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2000; 19(3):179-99. 

Chelation for Mercury Removal                                                                                                      


Acute effects of the heavy metal antidotes DMPS and DMSA on circulation, respiration, and blood homoeostasis in dogs. Klimmek R, et al. Arch Toxicol. 1993; 67(6):428-34.

Comparison of the effectiveness of 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) as protective agents against mercuric chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. de la Torre A, et al. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1998 Jul; 63(1):1-10.

Disposition of [14C] dimercaptosuccinic acid in mice. Liang YY, et al. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1986 Apr; 6(3):532-40.

DMSA and DMPS--water soluble antidotes for heavy metal poisoning. Aposhian HV. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1983; 23:193-215.

DMPS side effects. Ray Saarela. A very extensive list of problems with DMPS.

Elemental mercury vapour toxicity, treatment, and prognosis after acute, intensive exposure in chloralkali plant workers. Part I: History, neuropsychological findings and chelator effects. Bluhm RE, et al. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1992 May; 11(3):201-10.

Evaluation of methyl mercury chelating agents using red blood cells and isolated hepatocytes. Aaseth J, et al. Chem Biol Interact. 1981 Sep; 36(3):287-97.

Influence of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate and dimercaptosuccinic acid on the mobilization of mercury from tissues of rats pretreated with mercuric chloride, phenylmercury acetate or mercury vapors. Buchet JP, et al. Toxicology. 1989 Mar; 54(3):323-33.

Intravenous mercury injection and ingestion: clinical manifestations and management. McFee RB. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2001; 39(7):733-8.

Human studies with the chelating agents, DMPS and DMSA. Aposhian HV, et al. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1992; 30(4):505-28.

Mobilization of heavy metals by newer, therapeutically useful chelating agents. Aposhian HV, et al. Toxicology. 1995 Mar 31; 97(1-3):23-38.

Mobilization of mercury and arsenic in humans by sodium 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS). Aposhian HV. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Aug; 106 Suppl 4:1017-25.

Placebo response in environmental disease. Chelation therapy of patients with symptoms attributed to amalgam fillings. Grandjean P, et al. J Occup Environ Med. 1997 Aug; 39(8):707-14.

Prevention by chelating agents of metal-induced developmental toxicity.
Domingo JL. Reprod Toxicol. 1995 Mar-Apr; 9(2):105-13.

Role of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. Graziano JH. Med Toxicol. 1986 May-Jun; 1(3):155-62.

Mobilization of mercury and arsenic in humans by sodium 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS). Aposhian HV. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 Aug; 106 Suppl 4:1017-25.

The influence of chelating agents on the distribution and biotransformation of methylmercuric chloride in rats. Planas-Bohne F. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1981 May; 217(2):500-4.

The protective effects of thiol-containing compounds on mercuric chloride-induced acute inhibition of enzymes from mouse kidney. Suzuki S, et al. Toxicology. 1984 Jan; 29(3):207-20.

Treatment of mercuric chloride poisoning with dimercaptosuccinic acid and diuretics: preliminary studies. Aaseth J, et al. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1982 Apr; 19(2):173-86. +

Urinary excretion of mercury after occupational exposure to mercury vapour and influence of the chelating agent meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Roels HA, et al. Br J Ind Med. 1991 Apr; 48(4):247-53.

Urinary excretion of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in human subjects. Aposhian HV, et al. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1989 May; 45(5):520-6.

Urinary excretion of trace elements in humans after sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate challenge test. Torres-Alanis O, et al. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2000; 38(7):697-700. 


Methylmercury-thiol uptake into cultured brain capillary endothelial cells on amino acid system L. Mokrzan EM, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Mar; 272(3):1277-84.

Monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate as a delayed treatment for mercury removal in rats. Kostial K, et al. Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Sep; 102 Suppl 3:309-11.

Racemic-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for inorganic mercury mobilization in rats. Kostial K, et al. J Appl Toxicol. 1997 Jan-Feb; 17(1):71-4. 

Cellular Damage

Block of sodium channels by divalent mercury: role of specific cysteinyl residues in the P-loop region. Hisatome I, et al. Biophys J. 2000 Sep; 79(3):1336-45.

Calcium channels as target sites of heavy metals. Busselberg D. Toxicol Lett. 1995 Dec ;82-83:255-61.

Cytotoxicity of dental composite components and mercury compounds in lung cells. Reichl FX, et al. Dent Mater. 2001 Mar; 17(2):95-101.

Effects of lead, mercury, and methyl mercury on gap junctions and [Ca2+]i in bone cells. Schirrmacher K, et al. Calcif Tissue Int. 1998 Aug; 63(2):134-9.

Effects of occupational metallic mercury vapour exposure on suppressor-inducer (CD4+CD45RA+) T lymphocytes and CD57+CD16+ natural killer cells. Park SH, et al. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000 Nov; 73(8):537-42.

Enzymatic oxidation of mercury vapor by erythrocytes. Halbach S, et al. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Apr 12; 523(2):522-31.

Interaction of heavy metal toxicants with brain constitutive nitric oxide synthase. Mittal CK, et al. Mol Cell Biochem. 1995 Aug-Sep; 149-150:263-5.

Localized cellular inflammatory responses to subcutaneously implanted dental mercury. Nadarajah V, et al. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1996 Oct 11; 49(2):113-25.

Mercuric chloride uncouples glutamate uptake from the countertransport of hydroxyl equivalents. Nagaraja TN, et al. Am J Physiol. 1996 Nov; 271(5 Pt 1):C1487-93.

Mercury-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes: caspase activation is linked to redox status. Shenker BJ, et al. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2002 Jun; 4(3):379-89.

Mercury-induced apoptosis in human lymphoid cells: evidence that the apoptotic pathway is mercurial species dependent. Shenker BJ, et al. Environ Res. 2000 Oct; 84(2):89-99.

Mercury vapor inhalation inhibits binding of GTP to tubulin in rat brain: similarity to a molecular lesion in Alzheimer diseased brain. Pendergrass JC, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1997; 18(2):315-24. 

Mercury vapor uptake and hydrogen peroxide detoxification in human and mouse red blood cells. Halbach S, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1988 Dec; 96(3):517-24.

Mitochondrial calcium release as induced by Hg2+. Chavez E, et al. J Biol Chem. 1988 Mar 15; 263(8):3582-7.

Modifications of Ca2+ signaling by inorganic mercury in PC12 cells. Rossi AD, et al. FASEB J. 1993 Dec; 7(15):1507-14.

Modulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by mercury. Mirzoian A, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Aug; 302(2):560-7.

Specificity and reversibility of the inhibition by HgCl2 of glutamate transport in astrocyte cultures. Brookes N. J Neurochem. 1988 Apr; 50(4):1117-22.

The involvement of microtubular disruption in methylmercury-induced apoptosis in neuronal and nonneuronal cell lines. Miura K, et al. N. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999 Nov 1; 160(3):279-88.

Transition metals in control of gene expression. O'Halloran TV. Science. 1993 Aug 6; 261(5122):699. 

Composite Fillings and Bis-GMA

Bisphenol-A content of resin monomers and related degradation products.
Schmalz G, et al. Clin Oral Investig. 1999 Sep; 3(3):114-9.

Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A released from a dental sealant. Fung EY, et al. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000 Jan;131(1):51-8.

Time-related bisphenol-A content and estrogenic activity in saliva samples collected in relation to placement of fissure sealants. et al. Clin Oral Investig. 1999 Sep; 3(3):120-5. 

Dentists and Dental Office

Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to elemental Hg among dentists. Echeverria D, et al. Jr.Neurotoxicol Teratol, 17(2):161-8, 1995.

Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to HgO among dental professionals: a cross-study evaluation of psychomotor effects. Bittner AC Jr, et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1998 Jul-Aug; 20(4):429-39.

Mercury accumulation in tissues from dental staff and controls in relation to exposure. Nylander, et al. Swed Dent J. 1989; 13(6):235-43.

Mercury exposure of different origins among dentists and dental nurses.
Skare I, et al. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1990 Oct; 16(5):340-7.

Mercury in Pituitary Glands of Dentists. Nylander M. Lancet 1986 Febr 22, 442. Lancet. 1986 Feb 22; 1(8478):442.  

Mercury levels among dental personnel in Israel: a preliminary study. Steinberg D, et al. Isr J Med Sci. 1995 Jul; 31(7):428-32.

Prospective study on the mercury uptake of dental students. Part 1: Increase in mercury excretion during simulated training. Pieper K, et al. Dtsch Zahnarztl Z. 1989 Sep; 44(9):714-6.

Suicide among Swedish dentists. A ten-year follow-up study. Arnetz BB, et al. Scand J Soc Med. 1987; 15(4):243-6.  

Urinary porphyrin profiles as a biomarker of mercury exposure: studies on dentists with occupational exposure to mercury vapor. et al.  J Toxicol Environ Health. 1993 Oct-Nov; 40(2-3):235-46. 

Mercury Related Diseases and Symptoms: Neurological                                                 


Mercury induced Alzheimer's disease: accelerating incidence? Ely JT. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2001 Dec; 67(6):800-6.

Mercury Linked to Alzheimer's Disease. Leong CW, et al. University of Calgary Medical School. 26-Mar-2001.

Metals and trace elements in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. Basun H, Forssell LG, et al. J Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect. 1991; 3(4):231-58.

Regional brain trace-element studies in Alzheimer's disease. Thompson CM, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1988 Spring; 9(1):1-7.

Mercury Linked to Alzheimer's Disease. Leong CW, et al. University of Calgary Medical School. 26-Mar-2001.

The deleterious effects of low micromolar mercury on important brain and cerebrospinal fluid proteins. Pendergrass J. et al. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, Annual Meeting, 5-9 November 1995, Miami, Florida. 

Parkinson’s Disease

Metal-triggered structural transformations, aggregation, and fibrillation of human alpha-synuclein. A possible molecular NK between Parkinson's disease and heavy metal exposure. Uversky VN, et al. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 23; 276(47):44284-96. Epub 2001 Sep 11.

Occupational exposures to metals as risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Gorell JM, et al. Neurology. 1997 Mar; 48(3):650-8.

The enigma of parkinsonism in chronic borderline mercury intoxication, resolved by challenge with penicillamine. Finkelstein Y, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1996 Spring; 17(1):291-5. 

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

GTP-binding proteins in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid. Haley B. Kasarskis EJ. et al. Ann Neurol. 1995.

Mercury intoxication simulating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Adams CR, Ziegler DK, Lin JT. JAMA. 1983 Aug 5; 250(5):642-3. 


Evidence of a relationship between childhood-onset type I diabetes and low groundwater concentration of zinc. Haglund B, et al. Diabetes Care. 1996 Aug; 19(8):873-5.  

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Cerebrospinal fluid protein changes in multiple sclerosis after dental amalgam removal. Huggins HA, et al. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Aug; 3(4):295-300.

Mercury in cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis. Ahlrot-Westerlund B. Swed J. Biol Med 1:6, Mar 1989.

Second Nordic Symposium on Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease. Odense University, Denmark, August 17-21, 1987.  

Systems Related to Chronic Mercury Poisoning


Alterations of heme, cytochrome P-450, and steroid metabolism by mercury in rat adrenal. Veltman JC, et al. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1986 Aug 1; 248(2):467-78.  


Effects of mercury on myosin ATPase in the ventricular myocardium of the rat. Moreira CM, et al. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003 Jul; 135C (3):269-75.

Effects of mercury on the isolated heart muscle are prevented by DTT and cysteine. Vassallo DV, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999 Apr 15; 156(2):113-8.

Mercury and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Lorscheider F, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Mar 1; 35 (3):819-20.

Mercury effects on the contractile activity of the heart muscle. Oliveira EM, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1994 Sep; 128(1):86-91.

Mercury in the heart. Manoukian SV, et al. Am J Cardiol. 1991. Feb. 67(4):317-8.  


Neurotoxic effects of mercury on auditory cortex networks growing on microelectrode arrays: a preliminary analysis. Gopal KV. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2003 Jan-Feb; 25(1):69-76.  


Mercury concentrations in the human brain and kidneys in relation to exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Nylander M, et al. Swed Dent J. 1987; 11(5):179-87.

Mercury induces regional and cell-specific stress protein expression in rat kidney. et al. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Feb; 53(2):447-57.

Renal function and amalgam mercury. Vimy MJ, et al. Am J Physiol. 1997 Sep; 273(3 Pt 2):R1199-200.

Understanding renal toxicity of heavy metals. Diamond GL, et al. Toxicol Pathol. 1998 Jan-Feb; 26(1):92-103. 


Colour vision loss in workers exposed to elemental mercury vapour. Cavalleri A, et al. Toxicol Lett. 1995 May; 77(1-3):351-6.

Visual evoked potentials and the time of motor reaction to visual stimuli in chronic metallic mercury poisoning. Langauer-Lewowicka H, et al. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1988 Nov-Dec; 22(6):495-9.


A compartmental model for the kinetics of mercury vapor in humans. Jonsson F, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999 Mar 1; 155(2):161-8.

Amalgam fillings--a considerable source of exposure to heavy metals. Skare I, Engqvist A. Lakartidningen. 1992 Apr 8; 89(15):1299-301.

Daily dose calculations from measurements of intra-oral mercury vapor. Olsson S, et al. J Dent Res. 1992 Feb; 71(2):414-23.

Human exposure to mercury and silver released from dental amalgam restorations. Skare I, et al. Arch Environ Health. 1994 Sep-Oct; 49(5):384-94.

Mercury concentrations in the urine of children with and without amalgam fillings. Schulte A, et al.  Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed. 1994; 104(11):1336-40.

Mercury in saliva and the risk of exceeding limits for sewage in relation to exposure to amalgam fillings. Leistevuo J, et al. Arch Environ Health. 2002 Jul-Aug; 57(4):366-70.

Quantitation of total mercury vapor released during dental procedures. Engle JH, et al. Dent Mater 1992 May; 8(3):176-180.

Speciation of mercury excreted in feces from individuals with amalgam fillings. Engqvist A, et al. Arch Environ Health. 1998 May-Jun; 53(3):205-13.

Exposure to mercury in the population. I. Mercury concentrations in the urine of normal subjects. Zander D, et al. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1990 Oct; 190(4):315-24.

10 years of observation by public health offices in Baden-Wurttemberg--assessment of human biomonitoring for mercury due to dental amalgam fillings and other sources. Gabrio T, et al. Gesundheitswesen. 2003 May; 65(5):327-35.

Urinary excretion of mercury, copper and zinc in subjects exposed to mercury vapour. Sallsten G, et al. Biometals. 1997 Oct; 10(4):357-61.

Urinary mercury clearance of dental personnel after a longterm intermission in occupational exposure. Skare I, et al. Swed Dent J. 1990; 14(6):255-9. 

Fecal Metals

Diversion or prevention of biliary outflow from the liver diminishes the renal uptake of injected inorganic mercury. Zalups RK, et al. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Apr; 24(4):480-6.  

Mechanisms of metal transport across liver cell plasma membranes. Ballatori N. Drug Metab Rev. 1991; 23(1-2):83-132.

Speciation of mercury excreted in feces from individuals with amalgam fillings. Engqvist A, et al. Arch Environ Health. 1998 May-Jun; 53(3):205-13.

The kinetics of intravenously administered methyl mercury in man. Smith JC, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1994 Oct; 128(2):251-6.  

Fetus, Baby, and Child                                                                              

Behavioural effects of prenatal metallic mercury inhalation exposure in rats. Danielsson BR, et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1993 Nov-Dec; 15(6):391-6.

Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Grandjean P, et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1997 Nov-Dec; 19(6):417-28.

Comparison of mercury levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues. Kuhnert PM, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Jan 15; 139(2):209-13.

Concentrations of heavy metals in maternal and umbilical cord blood. et al. Biometals. 1993 Spring; 6(1):61-6.

Concentrations of mercury, cadmium and lead in brain and kidney of second trimester fetuses and infants. Lutz E, et al. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1996 Jun; 10(2):61-7.

Dental amalgam and pregnancy. Drasch G, et al. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1995 Jun; 55(6):M63-5.

Disposition of inhaled mercury vapor in pregnant rats: maternal toxicity and effects on developmental outcome. Morgan DL, et al. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Apr;66(2):261-73.

Effect of inorganic mercury on in vitro placental nutrient transfer and oxygen consumption. Urbach J, et al. Reprod Toxicol. 1992; 6(1):69-75.

Influence of prenatal mercury exposure upon scholastic and psychological test performance: benchmark analysis of a New Zealand cohort. Crump KS, et al. Risk Anal. 1998 Dec; 18(6):701-13.

Intrauterine methylmercury intoxication. Consequence of the inherent brain lesions and cognitive dysfunction in maturity. Kakita A, et al. Brain Res. 2000 Sep 22; 877(2):322-30.

In vitro effect of mercury on enzyme activities and its accumulation in the first-trimester human placenta. Boadi WY, et al. Environ Res. 1992 Feb; 57(1):96-106.

Longitudinal study of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in blood and urine of pregnant and lactating women, as well as in umbilical cord blood. Vahter M, et al. Environ Res. 2000 Oct ; 84(2):186-94.

Mercury and selenium concentrations in maternal and neonatal scalp hair: relationship to amalgam-based dental treatment received during pregnancy. Razagui IB, et al. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2001 Jul; 81(1):1-19.

Mercury in the Umbilical Cord: Implications for Risk Assessment for Minamata Disease. Dalgard C, et al. Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Jun; 102(6-7):548-50.

Monitoring methylmercury during pregnancy: maternal hair predicts fetal brain exposure. Cernichiari E, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1995 Winter; 16(4):705-10.

Placental to fetal transfer of mercury and fetotoxicity. Yoshida M. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2002 Feb; 196(2):79-88.

Prenatal coexposure to metallic mercury vapour and methylmercury produce interactive behavioural changes in adult rats. Fredriksson A, et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1996 Mar-Apr; 18(2):129-34.

Tagum study II: follow-up study at two years of age after prenatal exposure to mercury. Ramirez GB, et al. Pediatrics. 2003 Mar; 111(3):e289-95.

The effect of mercury vapour on cholinergic neurons in the fetal brain: studies on the expression of nerve growth factor and its low- and high-affinity receptors. Soderstrom S, et al. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1995 Mar 16;85(1):96-108.

The toxicological estimation of the heavy metal content (Cd, Hg, Pb) in food for infants and small children. Schumann K. Z Ernahrungswiss. 1990 Mar; 29(1):54-73. 

Fish and Food

Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults. Yokoo EM, et al. Environ Health. 2003 Jun 4; 2(1):8. Epub 2003 Jun 04.

Sub-clinical neurobehavioral abnormalities associated with low level of mercury exposure through fish consumption. Carta P, et al. Neurotoxicology. 2003 Aug; 24(4-5):617-23.  

Free Radicals

Cytotoxicity of inorganic mercury in murine T and B lymphoma cell lines: involvement of reactive oxygen species, Ca(2+) homeostasis, and cytokine gene expression. Kim SH, et al. Toxicol In Vitro. 2003 Aug; 17(4):385-95.

Mercuric compounds inhibit human monocyte function by inducing apoptosis: evidence for formation of reactive oxygen species, development of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition and loss of reductive reserve. InSug O, et al. Toxicology. 1997 Dec 31; 124(3):211-24.

Mechanism of HgCl2 cytotoxicity in cultured mammalian cells. et al. Mol Pharmacol. 1984 Sep; 26(2):360-8.

Mercuric chloride induces a stress response in cultured astrocytes characterized by mitochondrial uptake of iron. Brawer JR, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Dec; 19(6):767-76.

Mercury-induced H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation in vitro in rat kidney mitochondria. Lund BO. Et al. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 Dec 11; 42 Suppl:S181-7

Stimulating effects of mercuric- and silver ions on the superoxide anion production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Jansson G, et al. Free Radic Res Commun. 1993; 18(2):87-98.  

Galvanic and Corrosion Effects

Amalgam. III. Mercury release from amalgam restorations. Schuurs AH, Davidson CL. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 1993 Feb;100(2):45-8.

Corrosion and Mercury Release from Dental Amalgam. Pleva J. J Orthomolecular Medicine 1989, Vol 4, No 3, 141-158.

Corrosion products from dental alloys and effects of mercuric and cupric ions on a neuroeffector system. Moberg LE. Swed Dent J Suppl. 1985;29:1-51.

Cyclic voltammetry of dental amalgams. Horasawa N, et al. Dent Mater. 1996 May; 12(3):154-60.

In vitro study on the corrosion behavior of two amalgams in direct contact to different cast metal alloys. Willershausen-Zonnchen B, et al. 1991 Apr; 46(4):290-2.

Problems of simultaneous use of amalgam and gold in dental restorations. Willershausen-Zonnchen B. Zahnarztl Prax. 1989 May 12;40(5):167-8.

Release of corrosion products from amalgam in phosphate containing solutions. Moberg LE, et al. Scand J Dent Res. 1991 Oct; 99(5):431-9. 

General Health

Evaluation of the safety issue of mercury release from dental fillings. Lorscheider FL, et al. FASEB J. 1993 Dec; 7(15):1432-3. 

Genetic/ Mutations                                                                                         

Genotoxicity of mercury compounds. De Flora S, et al. Mutat Res. 1994 Feb; 317(1):57-79.

Lead and mercury mutagenesis: role of H2O2, superoxide dismutase, and xanthine oxidase. Ariza ME, et al. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1998; 31(4):352-61.

Mutagenicity of mercury chloride and mechanisms of cellular defence: the role of metal-binding proteins. Schurz F, et al. Mutagenesis. 2000 Nov; 15(6):525-30.

Mutagenic effect of mercury (II) in eukaryotic cells. Ariza ME, et al. In Vivo.1994 Jul-Aug; 8(4):559-63.

Oxidative damage to nucleic acids in motor neurons containing mercury. Pamphlett R, et al. J Neurol Sci., 159(2):121-6, Aug 1998.

Uptake, cellular distribution and DNA damage produced by mercuric chloride in a human fetal hepatic cell line. Bucio L, et al. Mutat Res. 1999 Jan 25; 423(1-2):65-72. 

Chewing and Grinding

Tooth grinding among wearers of amalgam fillings--a cause of high mercury release. Sallsten G, et al. Lakartidningen. 1991 Jan 23; 88(4):232-3. 

Immune System, Autoimmune, and Allergy

Allergic disease, immunoglobulins, exposure to mercury and dental amalgam in Swedish adolescents. Herrstrom P, et al. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1997; 69(5):339-42.

An epidemiological study of factors relating to mercury sensitization. Sato K, et al. Arerugi. 1995 Feb; 44(2):86-92.

Autoimmunity and Heavy Metals. Bigazzi PE. Lupus. 1994; 3: 449-453. Autoimmunity and heavy metals. Lupus. 1994 Dec; 3(6):449-53. 

Autoreactive T cells in mercury-induced autoimmune disease: in vitro demonstration. Pelletier L, et al. J Immunol. 1986 Oct 15; 137(8):2548-54.

Dental amalgam as one of the risk factors in autoimmune diseases. Bartova J, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2003 Feb-Apr; 24(1-2):65-7.

Does mercury from amalgam restorations constitute a health hazard? Weiner JA, et al. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Dec 1;99(1-2):1-22.

Dose-response studies in murine mercury-induced autoimmunity and immune-complex disease. Hultman P, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1992 Apr; 113(2):199-208.

Effect of dental amalgam and nickel alloys on T-lymphocytes: preliminary report. Eggleston DW. J Prosthet Dent. 1984 May; 51(5):617-23.

Effects of mercury on the immune system. Pollard KM, et al. Met Ions Biol Syst. 1997; 34:421-40.

Effects of occupational exposure to mercury vapors on T-cell and NK-cell populations. Moszczynski P, et al. Arch Med Res. 1996 Winter; 27(4):503-7.

Effects of Removing Amalgam Fillings from Patients with Diseases Affecting the Immune System. Lindqvist B, et al. Medical Science Research. May 1996; 24(5):355-356.

Enhancement of ovalbumin-induced antibody production and mucosal mast cell response by mercury. Watzl B, et al. Food Chem Toxicol. 1999 Jun; 37(6):627-37.  

Exposure to methylmercury results in serum autoantibodies to neurotypic and gliotypic proteins. el-Fawal HA, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1996 Summer; 17(2):531-9.

Immune thrombocytopenia and elemental mercury poisoning. Fuortes LJ, et al. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1995; 33(5):449-55.

Immunoglobulin E and autoantibodies in mercury-exposed workers. Dantas DC, et al. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1997 Aug; 19(3):383-92.

Suppression of T-cell activation. Shenker BJ, et al. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1992; 14(3):539-53.

lymphocyte function. Daum JR, et al. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1993 Apr; 15(3):383-94.

Induction of apoptosis in human T-cells by methyl mercury: temporal relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and loss of reductive reserve. Shenker BJ, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1999 May 15; 157(1):23-35.

Low-level methylmercury exposure causes human T-cells to undergo apoptosis: evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Shenker BJ, et al. Environ Res. 1998 May; 77(2):149-59. +

Low and nontoxic levels of ionic mercury interfere with the regulation of cell growth in the WEHI-231 B-cell lymphoma. McCabe MJ Jr, et al. Scand J Immunol. 1999 Sep; 50(3):233-41.

Mercuric chloride induces apoptosis in human T lymphocytes: evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Guo TL, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998 Dec; 153(2):250-7.

Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Sterzl I, et al.  Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(3-4):221-228.

Mercury-induced apoptosis in human lymphoid cells: evidence that the apoptotic pathway is mercurial species dependent. Shenker BJ, et al. Environ Res. 2000 Oct; 84(2):89-99.

Mercury sensitization induced by environmental exposure. Mori T, et al. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 1998 Jan; 52(4):661-6.

Metals and kidney autoimmunity. Bigazzi PE. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Oct; 107 Suppl 5:753-65.

Monocyte-macrophage system and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in workers exposed to low levels of metallic mercury. Vimercati L, et al. Sci Total Environ. 2001 Apr 10; 270(1-3):157-63.

Pretreatment of lymphocytes with mercury in vitro induces a response in T cells from genetically determined low-responders and a shift of the interleukin profile. Hu H, et al. Immunology. 1997 Feb; 90(2):198-204.

Toxicology and immunotoxicology of mercury: a comparative review in fish and humans. Sweet LI, et al. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2001 Apr-Jun; 4(2):161-205.

Unrecognized mercury toxicity. Zamm AV. Ann Allergy. 1991 Apr; 66(4):354-5. 

Infertility and Birth Defects

Autometallographic detection of mercury in testicular tissue of an infertile man exposed to mercury vapor. Keck C, et al. Reprod Toxicol. 1993 Sep-Oct; 7(5):469-75.

Effect of heavy metals on immune reactions in patients with infertility. Podzimek S, et al. Cas Lek Cesk. 2003; 142(5):285-8.  

Effects of metallic mercury on the perimenstrual symptoms and menstrual outcomes of exposed workers. Yang JM, et al. Am J Ind Med. 2002 Nov; 42(5):403-9.

Hong Kong male subfertility links to mercury in human hair and fish. Dickman MD, et al. Sci Total Environ. 1998 Jun 18; 214:165-74.

The effect of occupational exposure to mercury vapour on the fertility of female dental assistants. Rowland AS, et al. Occup Environ Med. 1994 Jan; 51(1):28-34.

Environmental pollutants and fertility disorders. Heavy metals and minerals. Gerhard I, Runnebaum B. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1992 Jul; 52(7):383-96. 


Bacterial oxidation of mercury metal vapor, Hg(0). Smith T, et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998 Apr; 64(4):1328-32.

Intestinal handling of mercury in the rat: implications of intestinal secretion of inorganic mercury following biliary ligation or cannulation. Zalups RK. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998 Apr 24; 53(8):615-36. 


Dental amalgam fillings and the amount of organic mercury in human saliva. Leistevuo J, et al. Caries Res. 2001 May-Jun; 35(3):163-6. 


Amalgam associated mercury accumulations in normal oral mucosa, oral mucosal lesions of lichen planus and contact lesions associated with amalgam. Bolewska J, Holmstrup P, Moller-Madsen B, Kenrad B, Danscher G. J Oral Pathol Med. 1990 Jan; 19(1):39-42.

Oral lesions and symptoms related to metals used in dental restorations: a clinical, allergological, and histologic study. Koch P, et al. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999 Sep; 41(3 Pt 1):422-30.

Oral lichen planus lesions in contact with amalgam fillings: a clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical study. Ostman PO, et al. Scand J Dent Res. 1994 Jun; 102(3):172-9.

Oral mucosal lesions related to silver amalgam restorations. Bolewska J, et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1990 Jul; 70(1):55-8.

The histopathology of oral mucosal lesions associated with amalgam or porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. Larsson A, Warfvinge G. Oral Dis. 1995 Sep; 1(3):152-8.

Three cases of linear lichen planus caused by dental metal compounds. Sasaki G, et al.  J Dermatol. 1996 Dec; 23(12):890-2. 


Nutrition: impact on oral and systemic health. Enwonwu CO, et al. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2001 Jul; 22(3 Spec No):12-8. 

Release and Absorption

A model for recording mercury release from an amalgam surface. Brune D. Biomaterials. 1985 Sep; 6(5):357-9.

Factors influencing mercury evaporation rate from dental amalgam fillings. Bjorkman L, et al. Scand J Dent Res. 1992 Dec; 100(6):354-60.

Release of mercury vapor from dental amalgam. Berglund A. Swed Dent J Suppl. 1992; 85:1-52.

Significance of hydrogen ion concentration on the dissolution of mercury from dental amalgam. Soh G, et al. Quintessence Int. 1991 Mar; 22(3):225-8.

Silver concentrations in human tissues. Their dependence on dental amalgam and other factors. Drasch G, et al. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1995 Jul; 9(2):82-7. 

Streptococcus mutans and dental amalgam. Lyttle HA, et al. J Dent Res. 1993 Sep; 72(9):1320-4.

Silver Amalgam - An Unstable Material. Malmström C, et al. Tidsskr. f. Tandlaeger (Danish Dental Journal). October 1989. Bio-Probe Newsletter January 1993. p.5. ( 

Removal Protocol

Systemic transfer of mercury from amalgam fillings before and after cessation of emission. et al. Environ Res. 1998 May; 77(2):115-23. 

The release of mercury from dental amalgam and potential neurotoxicological effects. Sweeney M, et al. J Dent. 2002 Jul-Aug; 30(5-6):243-50. 

Resistance to Antibiotics

Antibiotic resistance in oral/respiratory bacteria. Roberts MC. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1998; 9(4):522-40.

Detection of heavy metal ion resistance genes in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria isolated from a lead-contaminated site. Trajanovska S, et al. Biodegradation. 1997; 8(2):113-24.

Heavy metals, chlorine and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from ambulatory patients. Aguiar JM, et al. J Chemother. 1990 Aug; 2(4):238-40.

Polymorphonuclear phagocytosis and killing in workers exposed to inorganic mercury. Perlingeiro RC, et al. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1994 Dec; 16(12):1011-7.

The dental amalgam mercury controversy--inorganic mercury and the CNS; genetic linkage of mercury and antibiotic resistances in intestinal bacteria. Lorscheider FL, et al. Toxicology. 1995 Mar 31; 97(1-3):19-22.

The impact of mercury released from dental "silver" fillings on antibiotic resistances in the primate oral and intestinal bacterial flora. Liebert CA, et al. Met Ions Biol Syst. 1997; 34:441-60.

The resistance and adaptation of selected oral bacteria to mercury and its impact on their growth. Lyttle HA, et al. J Dent Res. 1993 Sep; 72(9):1325-30. 


Protective effect of vitamin E against mercuric chloride reproductive toxicity in male mice. Rao MV, et al. Reprod Toxicol. 2001 Nov-Dec; 15(6):705-12.

Zinc and immune function. Ripa S, et al. Minerva Med. 1995 Jul-Aug; 86(7-8):315-8. 


A multicenter survey of amalgam fillings and subjective complaints in non-selected patients in the dental practice. Melchart D, et al. Eur J Oral Sci. 1998 Jun; 106(3):770-7.

Effect of amalgam on patients suspected of amalgam poisoning. Klock B, et al. Tandlakartidningen. 1989 Dec 1; 81(23):1297-302.

Results of dental amalgam removal and mercury detoxification using DMPS and neural therapy. Kidd RF. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000 Jul; 6(4):49-55.

Side-effects: mercury contribution to body burden from dental amalgam. Reinhardt JW.
Adv Dent Res. 1992 Sep; 6:110-3. 

Symptoms Improvement after Amalgam Removal

Dental mercury: A factor that aggravates and induces xenobiotic intolerance. Zamm AV. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. Vo. 6 No.2, Second Quarter 1991, pp.67-77.

Health effects after dental amalgam removal. Siblerud RL. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. J Orthomolecular Med 5(2):95-106. (1990a).

Oral lichenoid reactions associated with amalgam: improvement after amalgam removal. Dunsche A, et al. Br J Dermatol. 2003 Jan; 148(1):70-6.

Symptoms and differential diagnosis of patients fearing mercury toxicity from amalgam fillings. Stenman S, et al. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997; 23 Suppl 3:59-63. 


Biological monitoring of mercury vapour exposure by scalp hair analysis in comparison to blood and urine. Wilhelm M, et al. Toxicol Lett. 1996 Nov; 88(1-3):221-6.

Epidemiologic assessment of measures used to indicate low-level exposure to mercury vapor (Hg). Cianciola ME, et al. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997 Sep; 52(1):19-33. 


Pulpal uptake of mercury from lined amalgam restorations in guinea pigs. Akyuz S, et al. Eur J Oral Sci. 2002 Dec; 110(6):460-3. 


Influence of amalgam fillings on Hg levels and total antioxidant activity in plasma of healthy donors. Pizzichini M, et al. Bull Group Int Rech Sci Stomatol Odontol. 2001 May-Sep; 43(2):62-7.

Mercury from dental amalgam. Lorscheider FL, et al. Lancet. 1990 Dec 22-29; 336(8730):1578-9.

Toxicity assessment of mercury vapor from dental amalgams. Goering PL, et al. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1992 Oct; 19(3):319-29.

Toxicity of mercury. Langford N, et al. J Hum Hypertens. 1999 Oct;13(10):651-6.

Unrecognized mercury toxicity. Zamm AV. Ann Allergy. 1991 Apr; 66(4):354-5. 


Mechanisms of hepatic methylmercury uptake. Ballatori N, et al. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1995 Nov; 46(3):343-53.

Methylmercury transport across the blood-brain barrier by an amino acid carrier. Kerper LE, et al. Am J Physiol. 1992 May; 262(5 Pt 2):R761-5.

Transport of the glutathione-methylmercury complex across liver canalicular membranes on reduced glutathione carriers. Dutczak WJ, et al. J Biol Chem. 1994 Apr 1; 269(13):9746-51.

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